snopes.com Post new topic  Post a reply
search | faq | forum home

  next oldest topic   next newest topic
» Hello snopes.com » Urban Legends » Science » Edison didn't discover electricity? (Page 0)

 - UBBFriend: Email this page to someone!   This topic comprises 2 pages: 1  2   
Author Topic: Edison didn't discover electricity?
Aptenodytes_Forsteriis
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Aptenodytes_Forsteriis     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by GenYus:
Aptenodytes_Forsteriis, I believe you have it backwards. Edison demonized AC in favour of his DC. IMS, Edison even invented the electric chair to show the killing power of AC.

You are right I am wrong. Strap me in the chair.

--------------------
'Hello, assorted humanoid strangers. You are standing casually in our forest. This bewilders us.' Blatherskite

Posts: 950 | From: Cincinnati, Ohio | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
GenYus
Away in a Manager's Special


Icon 1 posted      Profile for GenYus   E-mail GenYus   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by abigsmurf:
gah I always get franklin and edison mixed up. We never actually did any US history that was pre-WW1 at school ¬¬

Just remember that Franklin was a Founding Father who went to France and Edison was a ego-driven inspired inventor.

Gen "E and I in those words should sound somewhat similar so I used them as alliteratives" Yus

--------------------
IIRC, it wasn't the shoe bomber's loud prayers that sparked the takedown by the other passengers; it was that he was trying to light his shoe on fire. Very, very different. Canuckistan

Posts: 3694 | From: Arizona | Registered: Aug 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Andrew of Ware, England
A-Ware in a Manger


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Andrew of Ware, England   Author's Homepage   E-mail Andrew of Ware, England   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by pinqy:
The kite experiment was done by Benjamin Franklin. Edison was the one who didn't really invent the lightbulb.

pinqy

Quite right, pingy. Joseph Swan of Newcastle invented the light bulb. His first incandescent light bulb using a tungsten filament was invented about 19 years before Edison (IIRC), but he did not make a really practical one until later - but still before Edison.

A country house in Northumberland, Cragside, was the first house in the world to be lit by an electric light bulb. Power was supplied by a hydro-electric system in the grounds of the house. I believe it was the world's first practical use of HEP. The house is now owned by the National Trust and is well worth a visit.

--------------------
Andrew, Ware, England

Posts: 1709 | From: Ware, England | Registered: Apr 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Gale
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Gale     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by abigsmurf:
gah I always get franklin and edison mixed up. We never actually did any US history that was pre-WW1 at school ¬¬

yabbut when Franklin experimented with electricity, he was English, not American.
Posts: 4811 | From: Austin, TX | Registered: Feb 2000  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
GenYus
Away in a Manager's Special


Icon 1 posted      Profile for GenYus   E-mail GenYus   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Gayle:
quote:
Originally posted by abigsmurf:
gah I always get franklin and edison mixed up. We never actually did any US history that was pre-WW1 at school ¬¬

yabbut when Franklin experimented with electricity, he was English, not American.
But he was a colonist, so he wasn't really English.

--------------------
IIRC, it wasn't the shoe bomber's loud prayers that sparked the takedown by the other passengers; it was that he was trying to light his shoe on fire. Very, very different. Canuckistan

Posts: 3694 | From: Arizona | Registered: Aug 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Silas Sparkhammer
I Saw V-Chips Come Sailing In


Icon 504 posted      Profile for Silas Sparkhammer   Author's Homepage   E-mail Silas Sparkhammer   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
Franklin was also the one who guessed which way current flows, and got it wrong, which is why the electron has a negative charge, making all our circuit diagrams counterintuitive.

Silas

Posts: 16801 | From: San Diego, CA | Registered: Sep 2000  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
shifty rob
Jingle Bell Hock


Icon 1 posted      Profile for shifty rob     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Silas Sparkhammer:
Franklin was also the one who guessed which way current flows, and got it wrong, which is why the electron has a negative charge, making all our circuit diagrams counterintuitive.

Silas

"Open" and "Closed" circuits are also reversed from what they are in fluid power (pneumatics and hydraulics) circuit diagrams. In fluid power, an "open" valve is "passing", while in electronics, an "open" switch is "non-passing".

--------------------
"They got a name for the winners in the world; I want a name when I lose" -Steely Dan

Posts: 480 | From: Tampa Bay, FL | Registered: Feb 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Richl
I'll Be Home for After Christmas Sales


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Richl   E-mail Richl   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
I think many people believe Edison invented the light bulb because he created a better filament for it. And also lit Pearl St. in NYC, using the first power station, (Edison Electric Light Co.).
Posts: 106 | From: Mesa, AZ | Registered: Aug 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Gale
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Gale     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by GenYus:
quote:
Originally posted by Gayle:
quote:
Originally posted by abigsmurf:
gah I always get franklin and edison mixed up. We never actually did any US history that was pre-WW1 at school ¬¬

yabbut when Franklin experimented with electricity, he was English, not American.
But he was a colonist, so he wasn't really English.
He was an Englishman (edit) living in an English colony 30 years before it became an independent country. What else you gonna call him?
Posts: 4811 | From: Austin, TX | Registered: Feb 2000  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
GI Joe
Jingle Bell Hock


Icon 1 posted      Profile for GI Joe     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Gayle:
What else you gonna call him? [/QB]

Well, I belive King George called him a traitor, and most of the good New Englander stock called him a dirty old man. [Wink]

You're right, of course, that he was of English descent, living in a British colony at the time. It might be worth noting, however, that his view of himself and his fellow colonials as a separate cultural identity began about this time. His "A Defense of the Americans" (1759) exhibits this clearly, even though it was written a good while before the revolutionary zeal kicked in.

I don't think anyone mentioned it yet, but I believe Franklin was only the first one to propose the nature of lightning, which he did in a 1750 pubication. That publication also included Franklin's idea on how to conduct an experiment to prove it (the kite idea). I believe the first man to actually get electrical sparks from clouds was a Frenchman working off Franklin's notes for the proposed experiment. Believe his name was Dalbard. Anyway, as I recall, he conducted Franklin's experiment in 1752, and, as it turned out, just a month or so before Franklin himself conducted it. Given the time lag in communications, I guess it was understandable that the guy who came up with the theory and the idea for the experiment would get the credit for pulling it off first.

--------------------
Once a Warrior Prince

Posts: 496 | From: California | Registered: Apr 2002  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Ganzfeld
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Ganzfeld     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
[lol] This is the most mixed up thread I've ever seen at Esnopes! We go from confusing Franklin and Edison to confusing AC and DC (that was a problem on the Flintstones too) to confusing English and Colonist and American. (At any rate, abigsmurf said "US history" which, I would say, regardless of Franklin's status at the time, certainly includes events in the colonies.)
Posts: 4922 | From: Kyoto, Japan | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Andrew of Ware, England
A-Ware in a Manger


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Andrew of Ware, England   Author's Homepage   E-mail Andrew of Ware, England   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
Ah, but we have exploded the urban myth of Edison inventing the light bulb. OK, the thread was about Franklin...

--------------------
Andrew, Ware, England

Posts: 1709 | From: Ware, England | Registered: Apr 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
abigsmurf
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for abigsmurf   E-mail abigsmurf   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
amazing how a mistake diverts a thread ;^^

Still could be worse, could've made a thread about George Dubya being quoted as saying "I cannot tell a lie"...

Posts: 824 | From: England | Registered: Mar 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Troberg
Angels Wii Have Heard on High


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Troberg     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Edison's responsibility for electricity was to demonize DC in favor of AC, thus making $$$$$$ and ruining Tesla who was also screwed by marconi who patented radio after Tesla invented it.
And don't forget that Al Gore screwed Nicola Tesla when he claimed to have invented the internet.

Tesla, after realizing that providing global power through a giant Tesla coil using the earth as a resonator, was not practical, instead came up with the idea of an electric global communications system using a similar method, but with a modulated signal.

He didn't do much about it, as his interests led him in other directions, but this is (to my knowledge) the first documented vision of that kind.

--------------------
/Troberg

Posts: 4360 | From: Borlänge, Sweden | Registered: Nov 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Gale
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Gale     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
And I didn't even throw Westinghouse into the mix.
Posts: 4811 | From: Austin, TX | Registered: Feb 2000  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Aptenodytes_Forsteriis
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Aptenodytes_Forsteriis     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Ganzfeld:
[lol] This is the most mixed up thread I've ever seen at Esnopes! We go from confusing Franklin and Edison to confusing AC and DC (that was a problem on the Flintstones too) to confusing English and Colonist and American. (At any rate, abigsmurf said "US history" which, I would say, regardless of Franklin's status at the time, certainly includes events in the colonies.)

You think this is confused? How about we add the next level of confusion?

Was Franklin really a British Spy during the revolution?

--------------------
'Hello, assorted humanoid strangers. You are standing casually in our forest. This bewilders us.' Blatherskite

Posts: 950 | From: Cincinnati, Ohio | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Nick Theodorakis
We Three Blings


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Nick Theodorakis   E-mail Nick Theodorakis   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
And, in the "truth is stranger than fiction" department, actress Hedy Lamarr was the co-inventor of frequency-hopping spread spectrum transmission.

Nick

--------------------
Don't forget to register for the New ULMB.

Announcement here

Posts: 1089 | From: Indianapolis, IN | Registered: Nov 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
GI Joe
Jingle Bell Hock


Icon 1 posted      Profile for GI Joe     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
OK, a correction to my feeble memory from our friends at Wikipedia.

The Fremchman's name was Thomas-François Dalibard. Although he worked from Franklin's directions for the experiment, he used a tall iron rod instead of the kite Franklin proposed. He successfully got sparks from a storm cloud using this methodology on 10 May 1752. Franklin, using his own kite methodology, succeeded in the same thing on 15 June 1752.

--------------------
Once a Warrior Prince

Posts: 496 | From: California | Registered: Apr 2002  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
RealityChuck/Boston Charlie
The First USA Noel


Icon 1 posted      Profile for RealityChuck/Boston Charlie   Author's Homepage   E-mail RealityChuck/Boston Charlie   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Aptenodytes_Forsteriis:
Edison's responsibility for electricity was to demonize DC in favor of AC, thus making $$$$$$ and ruining Tesla who was also screwed by marconi who patented radio after Tesla invented it.

Nice theory, but, ignoring the fact that Edison wanted DC, Tesla wasn't the one Edison tried to put out of business. It was George Westinghouse that Edison went after (Tesla worked for Westinghouse but when Edison wanted to discredit his opponent, he pushed for electrocution to be called "Westinghousing").
Posts: 675 | From: Schenectady, NY | Registered: Nov 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Aptenodytes_Forsteriis
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Aptenodytes_Forsteriis     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by RealityChuck, the punisher:
quote:
Originally posted by Aptenodytes_Forsteriis:
Edison's responsibility for electricity was to demonize DC in favor of AC, thus making $$$$$$ and ruining Tesla who was also screwed by marconi who patented radio after Tesla invented it.

Nice theory, but, ignoring the fact that Edison wanted DC, Tesla wasn't the one Edison tried to put out of business. It was George Westinghouse that Edison went after (Tesla worked for Westinghouse but when Edison wanted to discredit his opponent, he pushed for electrocution to be called "Westinghousing").
Ignoring (or actually pointing it out in passing) the somewhat nasty tone implied in the nice theory comment, I will address the substance.

I said DC when I meant AC, mea culpa (as already admitted above)

Westinghouse was financing Tesla, not employing him. They would have been partners except that Edison won the battle (but obviously ended up switching sides as his company then proceeded to transmit AC) and ruined Tesla. Westinghouse was not ruined by bowing out of that arena, he remained wealthy; Tesla died a pauper, which was a result of his poor business sense and Edison and Marconi's rampant opportunism.

--------------------
'Hello, assorted humanoid strangers. You are standing casually in our forest. This bewilders us.' Blatherskite

Posts: 950 | From: Cincinnati, Ohio | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Ganzfeld
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Ganzfeld     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
I was surprised that Edison made it pretty high into the Japanese list of 100 great people in history a few weeks ago on TV. He is really admired here. I think his reputation in the US and Europe varies greatly but I wonder if he'd even make it on a list of 100 great people.
Posts: 4922 | From: Kyoto, Japan | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
diddy
Markdown, the Herald Angels Sing


Icon 1 posted      Profile for diddy   E-mail diddy   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
Franklin never actually "discovered" electricity. His famous kite experement only was to show teh conductivity of lightning. Electicity was allready around in other forms long before. Other perople properly explaned it and provided systems to generate it for practical puppses.

As for edison, he was a big supporter of DC and totally against AC which was run by James Westinghouse. Westinghouses AC was far more effectve and was the obvious choice. Edison was a staunch opponent of the Death penalty and when the idea of electocuton as a method of killing criminals was brought up, edison was consulted. He recommended AC believing it would smear westinghouse (along with his claimes that AC was highly damgerous) when people say the first electocution.

Sadly, AC was there to stay and even though the first executioon was grislty, it was later refined and kept. Edisons smear campaing failed.

--------------------
W.W.F.S.M.D?
But this image of Bush as some sort of Snidely Whiplash tying the fair maiden to the railroad tracks is beyond the pale. - Joe Bentley

Posts: 2311 | From: Minnnesota | Registered: Mar 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Ganzfeld
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Ganzfeld     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
There is an entry in the ULRP about Edison and the 'lectric chair.
http://www.snopes.com/science/edison.htm

Posts: 4922 | From: Kyoto, Japan | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Delta-V
Xboxing Day


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Delta-V     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Aptenodytes_Forsteriis:
Edison's responsibility for electricity was to demonize DC in favor of AC, thus making $$$$$$ and ruining Tesla who was also screwed by marconi who patented radio after Tesla invented it.

Bah! Everyone in Kentucky knows neither Tesla nor Marconi invented Radio. It was Nathan Stubblefield, who demonstrated a wireless telephone in 1892, a year before Tesla's experiments, and 3 years before Marconi.

--------------------
"My neighbor asked why anyone would need a car that can go 190 mph. If the answer isn't obvious, and explaination won't help." - Csabe Csere

Posts: 1225 | From: Wichita, Kansas | Registered: Nov 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Troberg
Angels Wii Have Heard on High


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Troberg     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Bah! Everyone in Kentucky knows neither Tesla nor Marconi invented Radio. It was Nathan Stubblefield, who demonstrated a wireless telephone in 1892, a year before Tesla's experiments, and 3 years before Marconi.
Nope, it was Leif Ericsson, the viking that discovered America, who invented the first mobile phone as a way to communicate with the people at home. That's why some phones are still called Ericsson. [Smile]

--------------------
/Troberg

Posts: 4360 | From: Borlänge, Sweden | Registered: Nov 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
abigsmurf
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for abigsmurf   E-mail abigsmurf   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
Nah the ancient egyptians had the first mobiles, the pyramids were just glorified radio masts.
Posts: 824 | From: England | Registered: Mar 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Troberg
Angels Wii Have Heard on High


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Troberg     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
At least the Egyptians had plenty of silicon to make chips out of. Too bad they went with papyrus instead of going directly to computers.

--------------------
/Troberg

Posts: 4360 | From: Borlänge, Sweden | Registered: Nov 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Don Enrico
Happy Xmas (Warranty Is Over)


Icon 15 posted      Profile for Don Enrico   E-mail Don Enrico   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by RealityChuck, the punisher:
Tesla worked for Westinghouse but when Edison wanted to discredit his opponent, he pushed for electrocution to be called "Westinghousing".

Dear powers that be, please don't ever let me get so famous that someone proposes to name a method of execution after me!

On other news: Was or wasn't it Newton who invented gravity?

Don Enrico

--------------------
My spelling is Wobbly. It's good spelling, but it Wobbles, and the letters get in the wrong places. - Pooh Bear

Posts: 2209 | From: Hamburg, Germany | Registered: Oct 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Delta-V
Xboxing Day


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Delta-V     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Don Enrico:
Dear powers that be, please don't ever let me get so famous that someone proposes to name a method of execution after me!

Could be worse, consider Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who's family reportedly had to change their name because of the device's reputation.

--------------------
"My neighbor asked why anyone would need a car that can go 190 mph. If the answer isn't obvious, and explaination won't help." - Csabe Csere

Posts: 1225 | From: Wichita, Kansas | Registered: Nov 2003  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
geminilee
The First USA Noel


Icon 07 posted      Profile for geminilee   E-mail geminilee   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
originally posted by Don Enrico
On other news: Was or wasn't it Newton who invented gravity?

He did not invent it, he discovered it. It is not like the day before that things were just free-floating, and only crashed to Earth when gravity was invented.
I do not know if there was a prior theory of gravity, though.

--------------------
"Accompanied by the ghosts of dolphins, the ghost of a ship sailed on..." Terry Pratchett

Posts: 660 | From: Gainesville, FL | Registered: Dec 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Mistletoey Chloe
Ding Dong! Merrily on High Definition TV


Icon 503 posted      Profile for Mistletoey Chloe     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
Au contraire...

(and then he invented Fig Newtons...)

--------------------
~~Ai am in mai prrrrrraime!~~

Posts: 10111 | From: Oklahoma | Registered: Sep 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Aptenodytes_Forsteriis
We Wish You a Merry Giftmas


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Aptenodytes_Forsteriis     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by geminilee:
quote:
originally posted by Don Enrico
On other news: Was or wasn't it Newton who invented gravity?

He did not invent it, he discovered it. It is not like the day before that things were just free-floating, and only crashed to Earth when gravity was invented.
I do not know if there was a prior theory of gravity, though.

and Lavoisier sure helped with the suffocation problem when he invented air

--------------------
'Hello, assorted humanoid strangers. You are standing casually in our forest. This bewilders us.' Blatherskite

Posts: 950 | From: Cincinnati, Ohio | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Ganzfeld
Let There Be PCs on Earth


Icon 1 posted      Profile for Ganzfeld     Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
That would be oxygen, not air. Air was discovered by Wilson.
Posts: 4922 | From: Kyoto, Japan | Registered: Sep 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
James G.
Xboxing Day


Icon 1 posted      Profile for James G.   Author's Homepage   E-mail James G.   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by Don Enrico:
quote:
Originally posted by RealityChuck, the punisher:
Tesla worked for Westinghouse but when Edison wanted to discredit his opponent, he pushed for electrocution to be called "Westinghousing".

Dear powers that be, please don't ever let me get so famous that someone proposes to name a method of execution after me!

On other news: Was or wasn't it Newton who invented gravity?

Did you know that there's more gravity in autumn, thats why the apples fall from trees arround then then. [fish]

--------------------
This is a public service announcement. The board is moving. Check Announcements Photos[/URL]

Posts: 1302 | From: Edinburgh, UK (Currently Nr. Swindon, UK) | Registered: Jan 2004  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
Finite Fourier Alchemy
Markdown, the Herald Angels Sing


Icon 96 posted      Profile for Finite Fourier Alchemy   E-mail Finite Fourier Alchemy   Send new private message       Edit/Delete post   Reply with quote 
quote:
Originally posted by geminilee:
I do not know if there was a prior theory of gravity, though.

Galileo already demonstrated that gravity on Earth was a force that drew objects toward the earth at constant acceleration. Newton demonstrated that gravity was the force drawing massive objects toward each other, and the same force that made things fall on Earth kept moons and planets in their orbits. I *think* he was the first person to really make the connection between physics on Earth and physics in the solar system.

Before Newton, things fell down because all objects are attracted to the center of the earth, and celestial bodies did not, because they were special. (Though they did follow Kepler's laws.)

--------------------
Thinking about New England / missing old Japan

Posts: 2603 | From: Virginia | Registered: Mar 2001  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
  This topic comprises 2 pages: 1  2   

Quick Reply
Message:

HTML is enabled.
UBB Code™ is enabled.

Instant Graemlins
   


Post new topic  Post a reply Close topic   Feature Topic   Move Topic   Delete topic next oldest topic   next newest topic
 - Printer-friendly view of this topic
Hop To:


Urban Legends Reference Pages

Powered by Infopop Corporation
UBB.classic™ 6.7.2