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Author Topic: (NFBSK): Experiments on the Revival of Organisms
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Comment: Many of us are wondering if this video showing a dogs organs and head (not for the faint of heart) are in fact real or if it happens to be fake.

http://www.archive.org/stream/Experime1940/Experime1940_256kb.mp4 (it plays in quicktime on my PC)

Here is a thread at Ars Technica where the topic is being discussed:

http://episteme.arstechnica.com/eve/ubb.x/a/tpc/f/34709834/m/948000122731

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lynnejanet
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Well. I can't testify to the veracity of the video, because I couldn't watch past the reanimated head.

Barns, do you want to take this one on?? Barns? Calling Barns....

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Mallow
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I can't see the film, but I'd bet it is the source of photographs I saw while in high school in the 60s. As far as I remember, our biology teacher was convinced. It's such a gruesome thing one tends to want it to be faked. OTOH, as I remember it was considered part of the line of experimental thought that led to heart and other organ transplants.
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Joostik
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Funny (in a macabre way) but absolutely fake.

Heart: could be genuine, nothing extraordinary if you attach electrodes in the right places.

Lungs: cannot breathe on their own, because they lack the muscles. Pressurized air will do the trick.

Dogs head: even if you provided the oxigen to keep the brain alive, it could never move the way it does here. In the part where it is shown to be alive, you do not actually see it being attached to tubes, only in the first shot (in the movie, not necessarily IRL) where it doesn't move at all and looks dead enough. Simple case of hole in the table, stick through head of (live) dog.

Second dog: [Dog is drained of all blood; heart stops. Dog is declared dead. After 10 minutes (!) a primitive heart-lung machine is attached and blood is pumped back. Heart spontaneously starts beating again. Respiration starts. Machine is switched off. Dog is alive again!] Possible in theory if done real quick, but ten minutes? And they did not even have to stimulate the heart to get it working again? BTW, they didn't "cut off its head" this time.


And that laboratory is sooo fake... just lots of bottles...

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Keeper of the Mad Bunnies
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Most likely true. I turned up the following on PubMed:

Resuscitation. 1976-77;5(3):145-52.

Use of artificial circulation in resuscitation of drowned dogs.

Gerya YF, Yankovsky VD.

The effectiveness of artificial circulation by the method of Bryukhonenko and his colleagues in the resuscitation of dogs that had died from drowning in fresh- or salt-water was studied.
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 1998;(6):13-7.
[Role of academic B.V. Petrovskii in the development of extracorporeal circulation]

[Article in Russian]

Lokshin LS, Luri'e GO, Dement'eva II.

The paper shows the role of Academician B.V. Petrovsky and his scientific school in the development of extracorporeal circulation, as well as his ties with S.S. Bryukhonenko (1890-1960), the founder of extracorporeal circulation in Russia. Heart-lung apparatuses were designed with the participation of collaborators of the Surgery Research Center (SRC), Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Ann Thorac Surg. 1989 Nov;48(5):628-31.

Experimental aortocoronary artery bypass grafting using a CO2 laser on the dog: acute experiment.

Nakata S, Campbell CD, Replogle RL.

Department of Surgery, Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois.

This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using laser tissue welding in aortocoronary bypass operation. Simulated aortocoronary bypass operations were performed on 10 dog hearts supported by extracorporeal circulation.

James Powell

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Communication Attempt
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While dog ressucitation may be possible,I don't think the movie was completely genuine

They kept filming the dogs at the same angle,wich made it suspicious.Also like Joostik sais you don't see where the equipment is supposed to be connected to the dog.All to convenient for a fake movie.I can put my dog to sleep and show pretty graphs while he regains consciousness too.

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Barns & No Bull
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I go to Florida for 5 days and come back to this video? Sheesh!

quote:
Originally posted by lynnejanet:

Barns, do you want to take this one on?? Barns? Calling Barns....

What, am I the "go-to-guy" for validating Frankenstein dogs or something? Because I talk about Mike The Headless Chicken... means I will talk about Fluffy The Bodyless Dog? Sure; why not?

The film is quite interesting and not really graphically gory. That really is JBS Haldane shown and narrating. He was a highly-influential and eminent evolutionary biologist. He was also a member of the Communist Party from 1937-50, FWIW.

The film itself has many odd elements. I question if it is completely original, and has had no contemporary modifications. Some of the text fonts appear to be modern recreations of old "Art Deco style" fonts - maybe not. There are fades between scenes that look modern - maybe not.

It is obviously a re-enactment demonstration film. We are not seeing the "real thing", if the thing ever was real. That is not an actual working laboratory. The starkness of the set (nothing but the apparatus, dogs & technicians) strongly suggests a studio set-up. The phoney racks of chemical vessels had me wondering when Lon Chaney would enter the scene. The techs might be actors rather than scientists. The dogs are not likely to actually be "attached" to that equipment in the film. Same for the organs. The needle graph recorders are comical props.

The reality of what is proposed begs a thousand questions. The linked thread is interesting. Some comments are intelligent and some are stone cold stupid. It was suggested that this film was Soviet propaganda. That makes sense. It is a studio recreation, but in itself that doesn't mean they didn't do what they said they did.

I think there are big differences between "reviving" organisms and organs with artifical heart pumps, and sustaining a sentient dog's head, which has been severed from the body, with the same. That alone is extremely suspect, and tears right at my ability to imagine hypotheticals. It is nothing short of outrageous. If it really happened, it is even more fantastic.

The schematic shown of the sustained head is suspiciously simple. There seems to be artificial circulation that is (apparently) limited to the carotid and jugular vessels. That might provide circulation to and from the brain. But that is insufficient in itself. There are a mess of other vessels that circulate blood to the face, nose, eyes, etc. Then we can start to talk about severed neurons, spinal cord and lymph channels.

I can't get the word bogus out of my head.

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Bonnie
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I'll add just a bit more to what James Powell has already turned up for us (thanks!).

Reports of the experiments by Brukhonenko and Tchetchulin [1] got wide publication in 1929 in the quite reputable Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale [2].

These studies, which were initiated in the mid-'20s, had been demonstrated at the Third Congress of Physiologists of the USSR on 1 June 1928 and were observed by several British scientists in attendance [3].

Furthermore, in early 1929, Spanish physician J. Feren-Perez visited Moscow's State Institute for Chemistry and Pharmacology, observed the experiments involving the isolated perfused heads, and communicated a summary of the results in La Presse Medicale [4]. This piece is accompanied by photos taken during some of these experiments (see this page for some examples).

There's a good overview (in German) of the development of the "autojektor" at http://www.dgfkt.de/artikel/203/Pionier.htm and a biographical piece on Brukhonenko, documenting his contributions to the study of extracorporeal circulation, appeared in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery in 2000.

Not only did Time mention the showing of this film in its 22 November 1943 issue (as noted in that other thread), but The New York Times had reported on this presentation a week earlier,

quote:
Science in Review

Process of Dying
Lessons of Some Experiments in Resuscitation

Waldemar Kaempffert
The New York Times, Pg. E9
14 November 1943.

At last week's congress of American-Soviet Friendship the Soviet-American Medical Society created a sensation by exhibiting a film which came from Moscow and in which a dog was resuscitated after having been declared dead. To physicians the revelations of the film were not exactly new. Ever since 1925 they had been reading in the medical press accounts of the remarkable work done by Dr. Serge Bryukhonenko. At the congress the latest resuscitation technique was projected on the screen, with a sound-track commentary in English by Professor. J.B.S. Haldane.

[...]

Kaempffert's article not only faithfully describes what takes place on the film, but it also does a good job of detailing the execution of these experiments and the rationale behind the study.

Me, I think it's fair to say that -- while the film itself is an obvious recreation in a studio of experiments conducted in a lab -- what the film depicts in terms of the experimental protocol and results is accurate.

-- Bonnie

[1] Whose names are also variously spelled Bryuchonenko, Briuchonenko, Brjuchenenko, Brjuchonenko, Czeczulin, Chechulin, and Tchetchuline (and probably some additional variants that I've not found).

[2]

Brukhonenko S, Tchetchulin SI: Expériences avec la tête isolée du chien. I. Technique et conditions des experiences. Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale 1929; 27: 31-45.
Brukhonenko S, Tchetchuline S: Expériences avec la tête isolée du chien. II. Résultats des experiences. Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale 1929; 27: 64-79.

Brukhonenko S: Appareil pour la circulation artificielle du sang des animaux à sang chaud. Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale 1929; 27: 12-18.
Brukhonenko S: Circulation artificielle du sang dans l'organisme entier d'un chien avec cœur exclu. Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale 1929; 27: 257-272.

(Brukhonenko also published the isolated head preparation as Der lebende, Körperlose Hundekopf, Umshau 33: 50, 19 January 1929.)

[3] Probert and Melrose. An early Russian heart-lung machine. British Medical Journal 2 April 1960, pp. 1047-1048.

[4] Feren-Perez. La survivance du système nerveux central dans des conditions artificielles. La Presse Medicale, 6 February 1929, p. 183.

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Bonnie
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quote:
What, am I the "go-to-guy" for validating Frankenstein dogs or something? Because I talk about Mike The Headless Chicken... means I will talk about Fluffy The Bodyless Dog?
Well, we used to have a poster named Severed Puppy Head, but he's gone now . . .

quote:
The dogs are not likely to actually be "attached" to that equipment in the film. Same for the organs.
I've seen photographs of functioning isolated, perfused organs -- these depictions don't look any different from those of the hearts and the lungs we see in this film. Furthermore, I don't know why any of these dogs can't be attached to "autojectors."

quote:
The needle graph recorders are comical props.
As the film's script points out, that apparatus is a kymograph, which is the predecessor to the chart recorder. It was a perfectly appropriate piece of equipment for a physiology laboratory of the day. Or, are you objecting to the traces themselves?

quote:
I think there are big differences between "reviving" organisms and organs with artifical heart pumps, and sustaining a sentient dog's head, which has been severed from the body, with the same. That alone is extremely suspect, and tears right at my ability to imagine hypotheticals. It is nothing short of outrageous. If it really happened, it is even more fantastic.
As long as one provides sufficient perfusion to the head and maintains adequate partial pressure of oxygen to a variety of soft tissues within the head, I think it's entirely feasible to elicit the depicted responses, none of which are dependent on anything below the cervical spine. Besides, how long do you think these isolated dog heads were sustained, anyway?

(Frankly, the only thing that truly surprises me about the isolated head preparation is the magnitude of the dog's "twitch" emanating principally from the neck in response to the sound of the hammer.)

quote:
The schematic shown of the sustained head is suspiciously simple. There seems to be artificial circulation that is (apparently) limited to the carotid and jugular vessels. That might provide circulation to and from the brain. But that is insufficient in itself. There are a mess of other vessels that circulate blood to the face, nose, eyes, etc.
Well, the left and right common carotids actually do give rise to the principal arteries of the face, nose, eyes, etc., as well as to those of most of the brain. It's possible that the schematic failed to depict the vertebral arteries, which eventually form the basilar arteries, which feed into the pons and cerebellum (um, I think). The schematic may also fail to illustrate the external and internal jugulars (actually I'm not sure at which point these bifurcate in a dog) and the vertebral veins, all of which these surgeons would've had to first sever and then connect to the "autojector." (Anyway, here's the vasculature of the human head, at least.)

In the end, though, if the integrity of the flow through the carotids, vertebrals, and jugulars are maintained, you're set to go. Assuming you're an isolated head.

quote:
Then we can start to talk about severed neurons, spinal cord and lymph channels.
So, what do you want to say about severed neurons, spinal cord, and lymph channels?

Patients with spinal cords severed at a similar level (and consequently severed neuronal projections) and intact vascular perfusion have functional heads and can do the very things this isolated dog head was able to do.

And if surgeons don't know what to do with lymph drainage, how do they close after, say, a limb amputation?

quote:
I can't get the word bogus out of my head.
Imagine being stuck on all the failed and only mildly successful isolated dog-head preps and unrevivable dogs Brukhonenko's group actually didn't tell us about.

-- Bonnie

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Western Fallout
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I was just curious, doesn't the brain function primarily off of electricity? Neurons and microscopic receptors and the like. Does the bloodflow create friction or conduct some outside source of electrical current? It seems like the "dead" brain of the animal would need electrodes strategically placed in certain sections of different hemispheres for it to react the way it did. I'm truly not savvy on these things, could someone fill me in as to how this is possible?

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Bonnie
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quote:
I was just curious, doesn't the brain function primarily off of electricity? Neurons and microscopic receptors and the like. Does the bloodflow create friction or conduct some outside source of electrical current?
The electrical activity of the brain is self-generating, as long as there's a sufficient supply of glucose and oxygen via the bloodstream to neural structures.

It's the movements of various ions (potassium, sodium, chloride, and calcium) across neuronal membranes and through ion channels and receptors embedded within these membranes that create electrical gradients and voltages sufficient to generate action potentials. Generation of action potentials is what causes neurons to do what they do and to communicate with one another via release of chemical mediators.

quote:
It seems like the "dead" brain of the animal would need electrodes strategically placed in certain sections of different hemispheres for it to react the way it did.
Think of the isolated dog-head preparation as you would about the case of a person with a severed spinal cord (and intact blood flow to the brain). Such patients experience perfectly normal electrical activity within their brains without benefit of strategically placed electrodes. It's just that their brains are unable to receive and transmit electrical signals to and from areas of the body below the neck.

-- Bonnie

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Barns & No Bull
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I'm not sure that we are actually seeing a severed dog head in the film. The angle is never right to see the whole head/neck and the attached apparatus.

I'm not sure that severed spines/cords and severed limbs (amputations) serve as good analogies to a beheaded dog. I'm curious what the effect on the brain would be if the vagus nerve(s) were severed.

I don't know how long they kept the head "alive", or if it really happened as told. I'm also curious how they severed the head in the first place. Did they do a single massive clean slice? Did they slowly cut and attach the apparatus to each major vessel as they went through the neck? If they did a clean chop, they are working against the clock (apoptosis of any cells in the head due to hypoxia and lack of circulation - neurons and other structures in the brain would be critical) to quickly apply clamps and attachments of the blood circulator device. Maybe they didn't care if the dog had brain cell death and was vegetative but still "revived to life".

There didn't seem to be any movements of the mouth to indicate that the head was trying to breath. This is an autonomous reflex, but I don't know if it is short-circuited and stops if the head is severed. Humans with severed spines might not serve as a good analogy, since their respiratory and circulatory system is intact.

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Llewtrah
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I was reading some biology texts a few months ago relating to dog brain experiments. They related to the implantation of a dog's brain into another dog's body cavity so it was parasitic upon the blood supply of the host. Apparently the brain enjoys protection from the normal immune response and could be maintained in this way for a considerable length of time (thinking about what thoughts might be going through a disembodied brain freaks me somewhat).

Another text described the attachment of a severed puppy's head to a host adult dog. The head showed basic responses (drooling, blinking) but the experiment was terminated because of tissue rejection.

Frankly, reading the details made me want to sever the heads of a few scientists.

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Western Fallout
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The whole thing seems cruel to me, but fascinating nonetheless. These experiments were performed by a reputable scientist, granted, but the reports of such undertakings seem a little sketchy. I would figure they would show the dog's head entirely, even the point of severance, in order to prove the validity of the video beyond a shadow of a doubt. Or at least make it look so, to maintain the illusion. Something like this needs some sort of professional investiongation (if it's even possible to say whether or not this video is real, at this point). And by professional investigation, I just mean someone who has access to resources most folks don't. Also, Graemlin thing at the top just makes me laugh.

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Bonnie
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quote:
I'm curious what the effect on the brain would be if the vagus nerve(s) were severed.
Severing the head at the neck would still leave intact the sensory and motor branches of the vagus that innervate the head (specifically, parts of the mouth, the ear, and the larynx/pharynx). Afferent and efferent (i.e., sensory and motor) fibers of the vagus having to do with the innervation of structures below the cut would obviously be disrupted by sectioning through the neck.

But, so what? A severed dog head that's receiving well-oxygenated blood from an external source doesn't need a diaphragm, lungs, or a gut.

Moreover, I doubt that the lack of vagal input to the brainstem from somatic and visceral structures of the (missing) trunk has any more "traumatic" effect on the brain than does the obvious removal of signals that would've arrived to the brain from a connected spinal cord (were there one).

quote:
I don't know how long they kept the head "alive", or if it really happened as told.
A typical experiment, from beginning to end, took about 7 to 9 hours, most of which was spent separating the head from the body, obtaining the lungs and vasculature of a second dog, and connecting vessels to the autojector. The final 2 to 3 hours were devoted to taking physiological and behavioral measurements from the isolated head itself. [1, 2]

quote:
I'm also curious how they severed the head in the first place. Did they do a single massive clean slice? Did they slowly cut and attach the apparatus to each major vessel as they went through the neck?
If you read French, I'll put Brukhonenko's and Tchetchuline's original reports (those from the Journal de Physiologie et de Pathologie Générale, 1929) in PDF format and e-mail them to you. These experiments are explained in exhaustive detail within those pages. (A note added to the first of these papers mentions the public demonstration of the isolated head preparation and Haldane's participation in these experiments.)

If you don't read French and are still interested in the subject, you'll have to agree to settle for an abbreviated translation, which will be somewhat less satisfying than reading the reports in their entirety.

quote:
Maybe they didn't care if the dog had brain cell death and was vegetative but still "revived to life".
Not much of what these dogs displayed relied on lots of processing in higher centers of the brain. Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline were interested in perfecting the technique of perfusing an isolated dog head and eliciting some basic responses, not in sustaining anything that would entail a meaningful, though short-term, "conscious" life for this lonely head.

quote:
There didn't seem to be any movements of the mouth to indicate that the head was trying to breath. This is an autonomous reflex, but I don't know if it is short-circuited and stops if the head is severed.
Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline note that after the spinal cord was severed, one dog (at least) made breathing movements (it opened and closed its mouth) while it retained a pulse. Once the pulse stopped (for a short time before the dog was hooked up to the autojector), these breathing movements disappeared. Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline, as far as I can tell, don't allude to the breathing movements again.

quote:
Humans with severed spines might not serve as a good analogy, since their respiratory and circulatory system is intact.
I think that analogy is the best that we've got. By the time the dog's head is hooked up to the autojector, it's once again got an intact vascular supply (and it only needs arterial flow to and venous return from the head) and it doesn't need a respiratory system, since its blood is being oxygenated by artificial means.


Who knows what the success rate for these experiments was? Perhaps only 5% to 10% of severed heads were successfully reanimated. We don't know how many dogs lost their lives in these experiments.

And what constitutes a successful reanimation? To Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline at least, this state seems to rely on the manifestation of appropriate behavioral responses to specific stimuli. It's difficult to conclude anything beyond that. We don't know how the "cognition" of these dogs may have been impaired due to brief periods of anoxia. And none of these animals were hooked up to EEGs, a procedure that might have told us something about the nature of their states of "consciousness." In the end, these isolated dogs heads (and we don't know how many were studied over the years Brukhonenko’s lab conducted these experiments) were viable for 2 to 3 hours before the experiments were terminated.

As far as I can tell, the scientific community (and, specifically, physiologists) in the early- to mid-20th century neither condemned Brukhonenko's and Tchetchuline’s work nor exposed it as fraudulent. Modern reviews have given Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline a great deal of credit for advancing the field of resuscitation and for contributing to the development of heart-lung machines. This body of work certainly seems to have been accepted by Brukhonenko's and Tchetuline's colleagues as well as by contemporary physiologists, even to the point of acclaim.

Perhaps it's too bad we don't see in this film the "business end" of the dog’s head (the severed end with tubing leading to the autojector). Maybe it'd be interesting to see the time-consuming surgical procedures involving the cutting of the skin and musculature of the neck, the ligating and snipping of vessels, the severing of the spinal cord at C7/T1, how the autojector was prepared (and that its function relied on the blood and lungs of a second dog), and how the major vessels of the head were connected to this machine. On the other hand, this phase of the experiment lasted 5 or 6 hours and must've been both grueling and gruesome to watch.

In the end, we have a short film prepared for scientists and the lay public. What this sanitized 20-minute film depicts (particularly in the isolated head preparation, which is what I focused on) is consistent with what's reported in Brukhonenko's and Tchetchuline's 1929 publications and an eyewitness report that appeared in La Presse Medicale the same year.

And I don't know what I can say beyond that.

Bonnie "except that that's the cutest little isolated-dog-head icon I've ever seen" Taylor

[1] Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline. Expériences avec la tête isolée du chien. I. Technique et conditions des experiénces. Journal de Physiol. et de Pathol. Génér. 29(1): 31-45 (March, 1929).

[2] Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline. Expériences avec la tête isolée du chien. II. Résultats des experiénces. Journal de Physiol. et de Pathol. Génér. 29(1): 64-79 (March, 1929).

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djp72
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this is straight from CS Lewis' incredible story
"The Hideous Strength"
!!

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Dead dog. Dead, dead dog. (100 points for reference.)

"After the experiment, dogs live for years, they grow, they put on weight, they have families. (cue happy music.)" Awwwwww.

"This dog Bunny was revived in 1939. Black-Ears is the offspring of revived parents. She was was revived herself in 1958. Nida was revived in 1938." All three dogs even went on to star in a feature film "Resident Evil" in the 1990's.

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peculiar hailstone
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was I the only one that noticed that when the film shows the glass jar of 'citric acid', the label has been added after filming, and there's one frame where you see another label on the jar, though couldn't stop on the frame to see what it says. Looks MIGHTY suspicious to me. Watch that scene again and you'll notice the label on the jar isn't real. Someone comment on this please, so I know I'm not crazy!

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Western Fallout
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quote:
Originally posted by peculiar hailstone:
was I the only one that noticed that when the film shows the glass jar of 'citric acid', the label has been added after filming, and there's one frame where you see another label on the jar, though couldn't stop on the frame to see what it says. Looks MIGHTY suspicious to me. Watch that scene again and you'll notice the label on the jar isn't real. Someone comment on this please, so I know I'm not crazy!

The experiments were performed in Russia, thus the original label was in Russian. Being an English documentary, they imposed a translated label in English.

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Age and treachery will always overcome youth and skill.

Posts: 348 | From: West Virginia, United States | Registered: Mar 2005  |  IP: Logged | Report this post to a moderator
   

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